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Stem-Cell Therapy

History of Stem Cell

We are using stem cells for more than a century. The term stem cells have been used since early. During a lecture at Hematological society Berlin, Alexander Maximow have proposed a theory that all blood cells come from the same ancestor cell.

The first bone marrow transplant was successful in 1968, because of the stem cells in the bone marrow.  Stem cells were discovered in human cord blood in 1978.  After this, many new types of stem cells were discovered and the world of regenerative medicine took shape and showed more progress.   At present, stem cells have the capacity to replace bone, fat, cartilage, heart tissue, muscle etc.

What are stem cells

There are unspecialized cells in our body which have the capability to be converted to any healthy cell in our body. I.e. they can be changed to skin, bones, heart and muscle cells. They are capable of replicating substantially, as compared to normal somatic cells such as skin. Stem cells are present in almost every organ and tissue in our body such as bone marrow, fat, teeth, muscles etc.

Functions of Stem Cells

Stem cells have the capability to migrate into injured tissues. This phenomenon is called homing. This occurs due to the injury/disease signals which are released from the distressed cells/tissue. Once stem cells are delivered to an injured site/deployed into the blood stream, they go to these distressed signals and get locked in adjacent cells and start performing their job.

1) Can be served as cell replacement, where they change into the required cell type.

2) They do not express specific HLAs which help them avoid the immune system. In fact, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) do this so well that they are in clinical studies for graft vs host disease and have been approved for pediatric graft vs host disease in Canada.

3) They dock on adjacent cell and release proteins called growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. These factors help control many aspects systematically.

4) Help to increase new blood vessel formation which aids in adding vasculature so that tissues can receive proper blood flow and the correct nutrients needed to heal such as the case in stroke, peripheral artery disease and heart disease.

5) Control the immune system and regulate inflammation, which is a key mediator of diseases of aging and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

6) Provide trophy support for surrounding tissues and help host endogenous repair. This works in case of orthopedics as it causes signals to be released which may now activate your own stem cells age: to repair a knee. In case of diabetics, it may help remaining beta cells to reproduce or function optimally.

Other stem cell sources

1) Embryonic tissue

Most embryonic stem cells (human embryonic stem cells, orhescs) are derived from embryos donated from fertility clinics that perform in vitro fertilization or IVF.

2) Bone marrow

Adipose tissue derived stem cells came from a patient's fat tissue, which is surgically extracted via liposuction under general anesthesia.

3) Adipose tissue

Most embryonic stem cells (human embryonic stem cells, orhescs) are derived from embryos donated from fertility clinics that perform in vitro fertilization or IVF.

More uses of stem cells

  • Stroke and traumatic brain injury repair
  • Spiral cord injury repair
  • Heart infraction
  • Anti cancer
  • Baldness
  • Replace mising teeth.
  • Repair hearing
  • Restore vision.
  • Treatment of five disease
  • Stem cells in the treatment of Parkinsons's disease
  • Treatment of Autoimmune disorders
  • Fracture Repair

Stem cells & hard-tissue repair

Because of the general positive healing capabilities of stem cells, they have gained interest in the treatment of cutaneous wounds. This is an important interest for those with reduced healing capabilities, like diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. In one trial, stem cells were isolated from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. These cells were injected directly into the wounds. Within a week, full re-epithecialization of the wounds had occurred, compared to minor re-epithelialization in the control wounds.

Stem cells & orthopedic repairs

Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteo hondrosis and sub-chondral bone, artists have been commercially available to practising veterinarians to treat horses since 2003 in the United States and since 2005 over 300 privately owned horses and dogs have been treated with autologous adipose-derived stem cells. The efficiency of these treatments has been shown in double-blind clinical trials for dose with osteoarthritis of the hip and elbow and horses with tendon damage.

Tendon repair

Race horses are especially prone to injuries of the tendon and ligaments. Conventional therapies are very successful in returning the horse to full functional potential. Natural healing guided by the conventional treatments, leads to the formation of fibrous scar tissue that reduces flexibility and full joint movement. Traditional treatments prevented a large umber of horses from incidence of re-injury due to the stiff nature of the scarred tendon.

Joint repair

Osteoarthritis is the main cause of joint pain, both in animal and humans. Horses and dogs most frequently affected authorities. Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curable, but rather took to reduce the symptoms associated with the degeneration.

Bone defect repair

Scaffolds composed of natural and artificial components are seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and placed in the defect. Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full union is achieved. Stem cells have been used to treat degenerative bone diseases also. Recently mesenchymal stem cells have been injected directly in the head of the femur.

Stem cells & muscle repairs

Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone marrow derived stem cells were removed and induced to a cardiac cell, fate before being injected into the heart. The heart was found to have improved contractility and a reduction in the damaged area four weeks after the stem cells were applied.

What is regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is the process of replacing, renewing or engineering, human cells, tissues, organs, proteins, etc. for the purpose of storing function and homeostasis in the body. It uses any means to heal otherwise non-functional cells, tissues and organs.

Research on the effectiveness of stem cells for regenerative medicine

As mentioned above, stem cells are used rather going to be used in case of regenerative medicine define above.

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